In the year to April 2014, the UK saw 560,000 immigrant arrivals which included 81,000 British citizens and 214,000 from other parts of the EU.
Replacing the labyrinthine scheme, in February 2008, the Labour government introduced a point based immigration system. This was said to be modelled on the Australian system.
The new point based system categorised migrants into various tiers. Initially there were five tiers namely the high-value, skilled workers, unskilled workers, students and temporary migrants in ascending order. However the British Govt. decided to remove the third tier as there was no need for more unskilled workers from outside the EU.
Each tier has specific requirements and according to those criteria a person earns points. Having a job on the ‘shortage occupation list’ like a biochemist or engineer, is one of the easiest ways to meet the point target as such a job fetches you about 50 points.
Under paragraph 36 of the immigration rules, anyone who is to stay in the UK for a period longer than six months, has to undergo a medical examination. The cost of the examination has to be met out by the applicant himself. The purpose of this is to ensure that no one is permitted in the UK who has the chance of endangering the health of others in UK. Also they want to ensure persons entering the UK due to medical reasons are not unable to support themselves and their families in the UK. At present there is a tuberculosis testing programme run by the UK visas and immigration. If any person tests positive, his application is paused, pending further treatment.
Immigration in Australia
Australia runs two schemes regarding immigration i.e. the Migration Programme (for economic immigrants) and the Humanitarian Programme (for refugees and displaced persons).
During 2013-14, Australia saw 190,000 non-humanitarian immigrants and about 20,000 people under the humanitarian programme.
Immigrants in Australia were mainly from India, China, the United Kingdom, Philippines and Pakistan.
Through the 1972 elections, when the Australian Labour Govt., came to power it decided that migrants would be granted visa based on their personal traits. Also what had to be considered was their ability to contribute to the Australian society through their occupation.
Discarding the previous racial and ethnic based policy, the points system was formalised in 1989. It was also updated in 2011.
Health requirements also have to be complied with while entering Australia. Everyone applying for a permanent visa needs to have a medical check up, a chest x-ray if the person is older than 11 and HIV test if the person is older than 15.
Immigration in Canada
In 2013, 258,619 immigrants entered Canada including economic migrants and refugees. Immigrants in Canada were mainly from Philippines, China, India, United States and Iran
Canada was one of the foremost countries to use the points-based system. Its system can be distinguished from the rest by the fact that it lays importance on desirable human capital and not only a particular job offer. For migration to Canada, the minimum points required are sixty seven.
Immigration to Canada, like other places also includes medical examinations. However there is no particular disease mentioned that would halt the immigration process. The will assess each case by its merits.